Birthdates as related to Jewish Genealogy ...
"Our ancestors at the beginning of the 20th century did not know when they were born in most cases. If they had any birth date at all, it was on the Hebrew calendar - and nobody transposed that into the Gregorian. So people guessed. If they were near the 'old age' limit on the draft, they might say old enough to be exempt. If they were young and patriotic, they might say they were old enough to join up; or if they didn't want to go, they were younger.
Social security was the same way. Those without birth records (most immigrants and many born in states without civil registration when they were born) were somewhat free to make up a birth date. If old and poor, they might make themselves old enough to collect retirement. Census records were checked to see what was said to the clerk.
But in most cases both were just an estimate. And I wouldn't 'trust' anything but a primary source, a birth record. Other records are 'approximate'." From a posting by Sally Bruckheimer
The following site is accurate and quite interesting. Type in your birthday, or anyone else and you'll find a great deal of information
Calculate a birth date from
information found on a tombstone or death certificate.
What Happened in your birth year?
Calculate the difference
between any two dates. Use to calculate age at death, or current age.
Birth date Calculator
Calculate a birth date from information found on a tombstone or death
Calculate the family relationship between two people who share a common
Day of Week Calculator
Enter date to calculate day of week.
(Cities and Towns in Germany)
Calculate today's monetary value for ancestor's salaries, will bequests,
Convert surname to Soundex code online. Find other surnames
with the same Soundex code.
With the original (Monarchical then Republican) system and the modified Julian (Imperial) calendar system, the Romans began their year with the month called Januarius (January) named for Janus, the doorkeeper in Roman mythology, a god-figure who looks both ways: into the old and on to the new, appropriate at the new year. Later, Christians changed the Calendar established by the Romans (the old, Julian Calendar, still in use for certain calculations) so that the year began in late
March - the old feast day.
For example until 1752 in England, this was New Year's day, making March the first month of the year (though a short one!) and September, October, November and December conform to the original meanings of their names as the seventh, eight, ninth and tenth months of the year. In Roman Catholic Europe, the switch to the Gregorian calendar (which took place in officially Anglican England and colonies in 1752 and which the reason is why one sometimes sees dates expressed as O.S. (for Old Style, i.e. Julian) and N. S. (for New Style, i.e. Gregorian), named after the reforming pope who authorized its use, was adopted quite a lot earlier, beginning in the late 16th century. For information on when various places switched calendars
"Michael Bernet offered: This was about the time that most European nations adjusted the Julian calendar and adopted the Gregorian calendar, which also required adjusting dates by about 11 days. In France an entirely new calendar was created. Either of these could explain the why of the date of the week."
"Michael is correct to raise the consideration of the shift from Julian to Gregorian calendar, which occurred at different times in different countries. Catholic nations generally changed in 1582, while many Protestant nations did not change until as late as 1752 (e.g. British Empire) and eastern Orthodox nations mostly changed in the early 20th century. This is important when trying to figure out "what day of the week was Jan 1, 1700" (answer is, it depends which country)."
"However, France changed their calendar in 1582, so by the date in question in 1811, France had been on the Gregorian calendar for over a couple centuries, and 24 Dec 1811 was indeed a Tuesday as has been pointed out."
"Michael is also correct in noting that France had an entirely unique calendar system for a brief period, a by-product of Revolutionary exuberance. However, the Republican calendar was only in effect from 1793 to 1806. Also, it was a complete overhaul of the traditional calendar, with the new year starting on the fall equinox, 12 months of exactly 30 days each (with completely new month names), and the traditional 7-day week abolished in favor of a 10-day week called a "decade". (Since 12 30-day months only makes 360 days, they had a handful of festival days at the end of each year that didn't belong to any month.)"
"Had France still been on the Republican calendar on the date in question (24 Dec 1811), I estimate that it would have fallen on the second day ("Duodi") of the first 10-day "decade" in the fourth month ("Nivo^se") of the year 18. In other words, there would be no confusion should you come across a Republican date in France, because it would look completely unlike a Julian or Gregorian date." From a posting by Tom Chatt
Calendar That Offers Many,
Calendar in Hebrew
Convert Any Calendar to any other
Dates In Jewish History by
The Hebrew Calendar in use today is calculated from 3,760 BCE, and is a combination of lunar and solar calendars. The week consists of seven days beginning with the Sabbath. the year consists of 12 lunar months - Tishri, Heshvan, Kislav, Tebet, Shebat, Adar, Nisan, Iyar, Sivan, Tammuz, Ab, and Elul - which are alternatively 29 and 30 days long. Because a year is some 11 days longer than 12 lunar months, a 13th month (an extra or embolismic month), ve-Adar, is added seven times during every 19 year cycle. At the same time Adar is given 30 days instead of 29
10,000 year calendar
50 Year Yahrzeit Calendar
Given a calendar day as input, this program calculates a 50-year Yahrzeit calendar suitable for printing on a single page. The calendar lists dates between now and Rosh Hashanah 5811 (September 2050)
Web Page: allows the conversion of dates between various calendar systems. Calendar conversions available include: Julian; Day of Week; Gregorian: Jewish .
Between Hebrew and Gregorian dates
"The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar"
Authored by Arthur Spier and published in 1986 by Feldheim Publishers gives both the lunar and solar calendar dates in an easy side-by-side format.
Order from Amazon.com
Convert any calendar to any other calendar:
for all types of time and date information
Right to Left Software - Calculate any Hebrew calendar date from Secular calendar
Convert the Julian to the Gregorian Calendars and vice versa:
Hebrew Calendar in Hebrew
If you are into Calendars, I found an interesting site at The Catholic Encyclopedia site
once there select the first hyperlink on your left "Catholic Encyclopedia"; then on the next page select the letter representing the day of the week you are interested in learning more about i.e. Sunday from the list you are presented and you will find, (among many subjects relating to the catholic religion), detailed information about the naming of each day of the week.
An online Day of the Week Calendar
Also for additional resources, try
Hebrew Date Converter
Hebrew Calendar for Windows
A commercial program with many unusual features and offered by Joe Kohn at
A Download the latest version now available
Holocaust Memorial Calendar
Converts dates between Gregorian, Hebrew and a few other formats
Year Yahrzeit Calendar Calculator
History and Info on the Jewish Calendar
Requires a search
Julian to Gregorian Calendar Chart
Explanation of the calendar
and its change from Julian to Gregorian
"Litvaks and Their Calendars ~ Or How to Navigate Between the Torah Portion, and the
Hebrew, Gregorian and Julian Calendars"
Authored by Jacob Bleadon. For information about different calendars, plus advice on programs and URLs to use to work with converting and inter-calculating dates between calendars, read this article
Find various twists on calendars, including Favorite bible verses, Ancient Latvian Calendar and Festivals, Calendar Maven (Hebrew Calendar software), HaYom Hebrew Calendar, Jewish Calendar, Kaluach (Civil Calendar)
WinGlobe is a tiny earth that sits on your Windows desktop. In addition to just sitting there it knows the local time and population of several thousand major cities around the world. It also shows where it is day or night at the moment. And it shows the current weather. Free download of program.
Yahrzeit Calendar Calculator
50 years by Andrew Tannenbaum
email@example.com given a calendar day as input, this program calculates a 50-year Yahrzeit calendar suitable for printing on a single page. The calendar lists dates between now and Rosh Hashanah 5811 (September 2050)
164 currencies worldwide can be converted to the current value.
Thomas Cook Conversion
The latter is a Universal Currency Converter™ that converts rates as of 9/29/1999 and is updated once per minute in both Canadian and US Dollars. Also many other countries money can be converted including French, British, German, Japanese and Malaysian and more.
Freeware (a no cost computer program)
Calculates the inflation factor from 1913 to 1999.
Here is a site that will convert the current rate from one currency into another. It also offers a 'History' button and a 'Travelers' link
The World Exchange Calculator
This is an easy to use desktop application that uses the Internet to access daily currency exchange rates for over 240 countries from a server. It is shareware
Once you are at the web site, type in the Search for box The World Exchange Calculator. You can then download the file to your computer.
xe.com - The Universal Currency Converter™
Allows you to perform interactive foreign exchange rate calculations on the Internet, using live, up-to-the-minute currency rates
If you need a time zone converter, there is a great one
Latitude/Longitude Distance Calculator
To use this calculator, here are the valid formats to enter latitude and longitude data: Option 1: dddmmssD or ddd mm'sss" D Example: 351153N 1113902W or 35 11'53" N 111 39'02" W where ddd = 1-3 digits for degrees; mm = 2 digits for minutes; ss = 2 digits for seconds and D = N, S, E, or West. The seconds and special characters (spaces, apostrophes, quotes) are all optional in this format.
Option 2: ddd.ffffD Example: 35.1234N 111.4321W where ddd = 0-3 digits; ffff = 0-10 digits and D = N, S, E or West. This format represents a decimal number of degrees. If the number of degrees is a whole number, the decimal point is optional.
Option 3: ddd mm.ffffD Example: 35 11.98'N 111 39.34'W where ddd = 0-3 digits for degrees; mm = 2 digits for minutes; ffff = 0-10 digits for decimal portion of minutes and D = N, S, E, or West. This format represents degrees and a decimal number of minutes
There are three facts to take into consideration when working out locations: 1. The Earth is round and has a circumference, at the equator, of 25,000 miles (close enough); 2. a circle has 360 degrees; and 3. in one degree there are 60 minutes. If you divide 25,000 by 360 you get slightly less than 69 1/2 miles per degree of latitude. Divide that by 60 and you get one minute of latitude equaling about 1.16 statue miles. The same applies to degrees and minutes of longitude at the equator, but like a lemon wedge, a wedge of longitude gets narrower as you leave the equator. You may need some tables to look at - or a knowledge of trigonometry.
This site I found to be perfect for dummies like me
Find ANY ADDRESS ALL OVER THE
WORLD and be amazed!
than Google Earth. This might
scare you...it's unbelievable
technology. Is there nowhere to
hide? After opening the
link below, type in the address
you want slowly, letter by
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watch each time where it takes
DO EACH LETTER AND NUMBER VERY SLOWLY
AND WATCH THE SCREEN ,
This site lists when individual countries switched from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar. It also gives some background information about the two calendars. This is important to be aware of because many countries, including Russia, didn't switch until well into the twentieth century.
The accepted Jewish practice is to use the abbreviation
CE which stands for Common Era or Christian Era. Years prior to the Common Era are referred to as
BCE - Before the Common Era or Before the Christian Era.
In predominantly Orthodox areas of Central and Eastern Europe, at least where the Orthodox Church held sway as the State Church under the 'ancient regime', at a secular level, the switchover to or the adoption of the new (Gregorian) calendar from the old (Julian) took place generally after the latter part of WW I and its tumultuous aftermath. The Orthodox Churches retained the old calendar much longer, and, perhaps still do in some of their many groupings as they do not always agree on matters affecting the calculation of movable feast days, etc. (such as Easter).
"The Julian calendar was used all over Europe and in the US. It was the Christian calendar for everyone of that faith until Pope Gregory proposed the reforms which carry his name.
The important point is that different countries adopted the 'reformed' calendar at different times, and the various Orthodox churches still follow the older version, leading to the 13 days later celebration of the Orthodox Christmas, etc. which you hear about in the U.S. The calendar changed in Western Europe, especially Catholic countries, in the 18th century. Eastern Europe was much later." From a posting by Sally Bruckheimer on 4/1/2000 on JewishGen
Although the Hebrew calendar includes a 19 years cycle, it is not true to say that the correspondence with the civil calendar will repeat exactly every 19 years (although it is only likely to be out by a few days). There are two reasons for this: first, the civil calendar itself is not regular (it will only repeat exactly every 2,800 years); and secondly, a number of extra adjustments need to be made to the Hebrew calendar (adding or subtracting a day every few yeas, according to prescribed rules), principally to ensure that certain festivals don't occur on inconvenient days of the week.
Calculate the difference
between any two dates
Time Zone Converter
Ask "What time is it in ..." and offers a pull-down menu of cities around the world.
Displays the time for any country --- from
Congo to Canada, Malawi to Madagascar -- as well as for a country's major city or cities.
Have fun with this one
more to come ...