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a in 1994
Estonia is a beautiful European country that highlights a tumultuous history, great cultural heritage, and superb attractions for international travelers. After its independence in 1991, it’scapital Tallinn was named Europe’s most optimistic towns. In the past, all you could see in Tallinn was a mass of grey, but things have changed over the years. Right now, Tallinn is a breathtaking pastel-painted World Heritage city. Each and every building has a story to tell, so exploring the city will certainly be a memorable experience.
The name for Estonia inGerman. In 1934, there were 4,381 Jews in this former Soviet Socialist Republic, with most living in Tallinn, the capital city. By the end of 1942, there were no known Jews in Estonia as they were massacred by the Omakaitse, ( Latvian sympathizers) and by the Germans - the Sonderkommandos 1a of Einsatzgruppen A, Those few who lived were deported to camps by the Nazis. The "Encyclopedia of the Holocaust" published by Macmillan Publishing Company, stated that virtually all males over the age of 16 were in the process of being killed by October 12 to the 20th, 1942. About 500 Jews managed to escape to Russia and were exiled to Siberia.
After the autumn of 1942, thousands of Jews from other countries were sent to labor camps in Estonia as part of the Nazi resettlement plan. The main holding camp was Vaivara located near the Soviet/Estonian border. Other camps where Jews were sent were Theresienstadt, Vilna, Kovno and the Kaiserwald camp in Latvia. The main labor camp of the twenty labor camps was Vaivara.
The forced-slave-laborers mined shale oil and built defenses for the German army. With the Soviet Army advancing on the Baltic Republics in the fall of 1944, the camps were evacuated by sea to the Stutthof concentration camp near Danzig.
On September 18 and 19, 1944, most of the remaining Jews were killed in the Lagedi and Klooga (Kaluga) camps - a few hours before the camp was liberated by an armored force of the Red Army. Fewer than ten survived. A memorial has been unveiled in Klooga and twenty-two more memorials honoring the Jews killed in Estonia during WW II are slated to be erected in the future. Some 1,500 Estonian Jews died during the war, and an estimated 10,000 Jews were killed in Estonia after having been deported to camps there from elsewhere in Eastern Europe.
After WW II, some 1,500 Estonian Jews, those who had fled to the Soviet interior in 1941 or survivors from Siberia, returned to Estonia. Today, the 3,000 strong Jewish community of Estonia is one of Europe's smallest. The Estonian Jewish leader is Cilja Laud. The current Estonian community's only property is a Jewish school building
I received the following Email: on Tuesday, May 28, 2002 from Raivo Hoolhool@artun.ee I do not know Raivo but I believe his point of view is of interest in researching Jewish roots, and is the only reason why I decided to provide it on my site.
"Hi - I read that page I mention on the subject line http://jewishwebindex.com/estonia.htm and was baffled. It can't be true. I know for a fact quite many Jewish people survived the holocaust in Estonia, because either they were helped to hide by Estonians or were simply reported dead to make the German officials happy. My own granduncle killed three German soldiers with a hunting knife to rescue a group of Jewish men. (He also suggested they lose the beards and cut their hair, for it was really remarkably unwise to walk around in a Nazi occupied country wearing a thick black beard and a yarmulke.) I used to date a Jewish girl whose parents and grandparents and their grandparents have happily been living in Estonia for a long time. Etc, etc. The list goes on."
"It is not, to my mind, very smart to rely on the official data, because those were very often faked so that people would be left alone. I am not saying that no massacres took place, far from that. I am only implying that Estonia was reported "Judenfrei" because Estonians wanted Germans off their backs and the official data are just a reflection of that." Raivo
"Encyclopedia of the Holocaust" Published in 1990 by Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY 10022
"A Guide to Jewish Genealogy in Latvia and Estonia" Authored by Arlene Beare and - published in March, 2001by the Jewish Genealogy Society of Great Britain ISBN: 0-9537669-2-6
This is an excellent guide for researching in Latvia and Estonia. Arlene is the President of the Latvia SIG This guide points you in the right direction for researching your roots in both of these countries. Modern and old names of Shtetlach are listed.
There are also references to cemeteries, museums and libraries. Resources, addresses of archives, details and copies of documents. Holocaust information, internet advice and travel information will all assist in your research. The guide is price at £4.50 (UK) - £6.00/US $10 (Overseas includes postage) Payment with orders and is available from The JGSGB Membership Secretary, PO Box 27061, London, N2 GOT
"SHOAH: Suur Having:Holocaust" Authored by Eugenia Gurin-Loov published by ETSI Juudi Kogukond, the Estonian Jewish Federation, Tallinn, in 1994.
"The Estonian Jewish Community is a small one. Out of а total population of 1,100,000, only 6,000, or about .5 per cent., are Jews. Over 2,000 of them live in Tallinn, the capital, the others living in Tartu (Dorpat), Narva, Valga, Pärnu and other smaller townships and villages.
The first Jewish settlements in Estonia date back to the early thirteenth century. In 1742, however, the Russian Tsar, under whose domination Estonia was for centuries, expelled all Jews. In 1828, some 500 Jewish boys aged from ten to fourteen were, according to a local historian, sent to Estonia to serve in Tsar Nicolas' army. The majority of them, unable to bear ensuing hardships, died, while the survivors were later allowed to remain and settle in Estonia.
In 1856, there was in Tallinn, then know as Reval, a Jewish Community numbering fifty. Its growth was slow, as the Russians hindered Jewish settlement in Estonia and particularly in Reval, which was one of Russia's main fortresses.
I would suggest to the researcher of the following sites, to also check the other two Baltic Country sites, including Latvia and Lithuania, as well as Poland and Belarus and Russia as there may very well be some cross references as the country borders changed many times between wars.
It is the only establishment in Estonia where people can get help with their genealogy research by hiring a professional. Jewish Genealogy for the center's web site that offers information english Phone/fax +372 7 420 882, mobile +372 52 88 329
Now available for the Republic of Estonia. This mailing list is also gateway from the Estonia Message Board which means that any post made to the board will be forwarded to the mailing list. To subscribe to the mailing list in List Mode send an email to: ESTONIA-Lemail@example.com the word subscribe in the body of the message.
There are, in historical archives, records of individual Jews being in Estonia as early as the 14th century. But the permanent Jewish settlement of Estonia did not begin until the 19th century, when they were granted the right to enter the region by a statute of Russian Tsar Alexander II in 1865. Jews with higher education, or who were skilled artisans or successful merchants, were allowed to settle in Estonia and other parts of the Russian Empire. Jewish cultural associations were established, as were, of course, Jewish congregations and houses of worship. The largest synagogues were built in Tallinn in 1883 and Tartu in 1901. Both of these were eventually destroyed in World War II during the Soviet bombing raids of March 1944. In 1913, there were 5 000 Jews living in Estonia, of whom 2 000 lived in Tartu and 1 100 in Tallinn http://estonia.eu/about-estonia/society/the-jewish-community-in-estonia.html
Karu 16 10120 Tallinn Telephone/Fax: (0) 662 3034
Tallinna Juudi Kogudus esimees - David Slomka aadress: Magdaleena tn. 9 Telefon: 55 71 54
Business 2 business company directory and business in Europe, yellow pages access, international and European business directory (professional services, addresses and business classifieds http://www.europages.com
In January 2012 the Jewish Community in Estonia opened the Gallery of Memory, where the names of nearly a thousand Estonian Jews that perished in the Holocaust are preserved. The main source of funding for the Gallery of Memory was the Government of the Republic.
Jewish and Kosher Estonia and the rest of the Jewish World
Maps of Russia and the FSU (Former Soviet Union) Republics Be prepared to stay online for quite some time, if you want to see one of the largest collections of different types of maps. This site is fabulous and offers a huge variety of maps that include such titles as Bukovina Maps; Ukraine Maps and Distances; Ex-USSR map; Maps of Europe in different eras; Russian Far East Maps; Belarus Maps; Ukraine Maps; Kazakhstan Maps: Georgia Maps; Tajikistan Maps; Crimea Maps; Uzbekistan Maps; Azerbaijan Maps; Kyrgyzstan Maps; Moldova Maps; Turkmenistan Maps; Armenia Maps; Caucuses Region Maps; Baltic States Maps including Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia; and more at http://users.aimnet.com/~ksyrah/ekskurs/maps.html
Open Street Maps The crowd-sourced mapping projectOpenStreetMaphas amassed a million contributors since its inception in 2005 and, according to navigation app maker Skobbler, boasts greater accuracy in England, Russia and Germany than rivals such as Google Maps. I tried the site and found an accurate drawing of my father's ancestral town Tal'ne, Ukraine. Almost every country is available as is most towns http://openstreetmap.org
Now Riga's old newspapers in Russian and German are available on the internet. The National Library of Latvia now presents the opportunity to read newspapers from the 20th and even the 19th century online.
German newspapers published in other Latvian cities and towns are also available at the webpage
namely, the “Anzeiger für Goldingen und Windau” (Kuldīga, 1927–1929), the “Goldingenscher Anzeiger” (Kuldīga, 1911–1915, 1929–1930), the “Mitausche Zeitung” (Jelgava, 1905–1906) and the “Windausche Zeitung” (Ventspils), 1901, 1903, 1907–1914, 1924– 1925, 1927– 1931).
Ex USSR Phone Codes for Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia, Byelorussia, Moldova, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Uzbekistan - you not only will see the phone code for each town (loads slowly) but also the proper spelling of the town name http://phonecodes.narod.ru/N/N.htm
Estonia was occupied by Soviet and Nazi forces, 1940-1944
A rare and strong photo. Krasnoyarsk Krai in the middle of Siberia, April 8, 1949. Estonian deportees have ended their week-long journey in cattle wagons and are officially being handed over to the local regional Russian department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, based on a statement by the train master. This so-called “Special Contingent of Estonians” consisted of 405 people, of which 82 were men, 203 were women and 120 were children. The 1949 deportation involved 21,000 Estonians or 2.5% of the whole population. The deportees were mainly kulaks (independent farmers) who had not joined the collective farms. They were deported without any trial. Women represented 50% of the deportees. 35% of them were children under 16 years of age. (The Museum of Occupation, Tallinn).
Estonia was an independent republic from 1918 until 1940, when Soviet troops occupied the country. This was the result of the so-calledMolotov-Ribbentrop Pactbetween Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. A part of this agreement was that Estonia, the other Baltic States and a part of Poland would come under the Sovietsphere of influence http://coldwarsites.net/country/estonia/
Just in case you didn't think of it, contact a nearby university or college's foreign language department. They may offer to write letters and translate letters into English. A nominal fee is usually charged.
1953 JEWRY IN LATVIA JEWISH YIZKOR BOOK HOLOCAUST 139 PHOTOS / LIST OF NAMES
There is little information regarding the arrival of Jews in Estonia. There are, according to archive materials, individual reports of Jews in Estonia as early as the fourteenth century. This, however, should not be considered the starting point for a permanent Jewish settlement here; Jews were prohibited from living in Estonia, i.e. Estonia was not part of the region designated for Jewish habitation. http://old.estinst.ee/historic/society/estonian_jews.htm
is one of the 8 administrative districts (Estonian:linnaosa) ofTallinn, the capital of Estonia. It has a population of 39,049 (as of 1 January 2013)and covers an area of 28 km2(11 sq mi), population density is 1,394.6/km(3,612/sq mi). The district mostly consists of older private houses and is sometimes known as the "forest city." It is one of the wealthiest regions in Estonia
These camps were answerable to theWirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt (WHVA - Economic-Administrative Main Office). Each of the large camps in Estonia – Vaivara, Klooga and Lagedi – held 2,000 – 3,000 prisoners. The small camps held a few hundred prisoners. Prisoners that held official positions enjoyed benefits with food and work. They were not authorized to punish the other prisoners. In the testimonies of survivors of the Estonian camps there are no complaints about their behavior. Men and women were separated, their hair was shaved and they lived in dilapidated barracks. Food was scarce and the conditions were much worse than life in the Vilna Ghetto.
Hundreds of children were also sent to the camps in Estonia, the majority from Vilna. Those aged thirteen years old and up worked together with the adults in the mines, paving roads, logging and building fortifications. In February 1944 about 600 Jews – the elderly, sick and children - were sent from the camps in Estonia to a death camp in Poland. The majority of the children under the age of thirteen were included in this transport. 1,400 – 1,700 women were sent toKaiserwaldConcentration Camp near Riga, Latvia and their fate was similar to that of those who were deported to Estonia.
“1926–1936.” Poster in Estonian, Hebrew, and Yiddish. Program for an event in honor of the tenth anniversary of Jewish cultural autonomy in Estonia, featuring a choir, speeches by M. E. Klompus and Hirsch Eisenstadt, and the singing of the Estonian national anthem. Printed by Libris, Estonia, 1936. (YIVO) http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/article.aspx/Estonia
The capital city of Estonia, had a population of nearly 150,000 prior to WW II. It is a seaport on the Baltic in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Finland.
A Jewish community existed here from the middle of the nineteenth century, when discharged cantonists (soldiers who were drafted as youngsters into the Russian army and who were forced to serve 25 years) were living there after their discharge. In 1939, there were 2,300 Jewsliving in this city - about half of the Jewish population of Estonia.
After the start of WW II, specifically during September and October, 1941, most of the men who had been confined to the city jail, were killed at Kabarneeme, at the killing site of Kalevi - Liiva. According to the "Encyclopedia of the Holocaust", the killing was done primarily by Estonian Nazi collaborators, the members of the Omakaitse organization, under the command of Sonderkommandos 1a personnel. According to German records dated December 19, 1941, 610 Jews had been killed by that date; the remaining Jews of Tallinn were murdered in early 1942."
Upon liberations of the city on September 22, 1944, only five Jews survived, but later a thousand of the Jews who had been in exile in Siberia, returned.
Tallinn University The struturalist's role "I am not certain the school would have developed without him," said member of the Estonian semiotics repository and Tallinn University teacher Piret Peiker. "Not the kind of Tartu-Moscow school we have today." Born and educated in St. Petersburg, Lotman's career as a scholar began in Estonia due in part to the fact that he was Jewish and was not allowed to work in Russia in the late 1940s. He moved to Tartu in 1950.
Tallinn University is the site of the Semiotics Repository based on the Lotman archive and library. It is still under construction as there are a huge number of documents to work through, including 18,000 letters sent to Lotman and his wife and collaborator Zara Mintz.
Peiker says the archive has turned up several previously unpublished manuscripts. And the repository has also received distinguished semioticians conducting research - "One interesting visitor was Umberto Eco, who came to look at Lotman's drawings," said Peiker. http://www.tlu.ee/?LangID=2&CatID=1331