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Use this search box to search all Jewish Web Index pages

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The family of Salamon Kolonomos, Jews who came from Janina to Bitola (Monastir) in the XIX century

14,000 of the 20,000 German, Austrian and Czech Jews deported to Latvia were murdered there in WW II.  Yad Vashem has added a list of over 48,000 Jews to their database.  Assistance is available via e-mail at

Balkan Research 
At this site you will find many links to Yugoslavia, Croatia, Bosnia and the Czech Republic  among other countries and subjects -


Multinational Balkan Links

Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies, University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh)

Association of the Mediterranean Chambers of Commerce and Industry-
ASCAME (Barcelona)

Balkan Studies Program (University of Copenhagen)

Bulgarian Studies Association (Boston)

Central European Initiative (Budapest)

Erste Foundation (Vienna)

Gallup Balkan Monitor (Brussels)

George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies (Garmisch-Partenkirchen)

Harriman Institute, Columbia University (New York)

Institut Europeu de la Mediterranea/ IE-Med (Barcelona)

International Council for Central and East European Studies/ ICCEES (Munster)

International Institute for Middle-East and Balkan Studies/ IFIMES (Ljubljana)

ISN ETH- International Security Network (Zurich)

Kokkalis Program on Southeastern and East-Central Europe, Harvard Kennedy
School (Boston)

LSE Research on South East Europe/ LSEE, London School of Economics (London)

Portal on Central Eastern and Balkan Europe/ PECOB (Faenza, Italy)

Regional Research Promotion Programme in the Western Balkans/ RRPP (Fribourg)

Russian and East European Institute/ REEI, Indiana University (Bloomington)

Southeast Europe Association/ Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft/ SOG (Berlin)

Southeast European Cooperative Initiative/ SECI (Vienna)

Southeast European Legal Development Initiative/ SELDI (Rome)

Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe (Brussels)

UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies/ SSEES (London)

Western Balkan Countries INCO-NET at the Centre for Social Innovation (Vienna)

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Southeast Europe Project


"Jewish Sights of Bohemia and Moravia"
This books reviews the history of Jewish settlement in the Czech Republic and examines the history and character of Jewish ghettos, synagogues and cemeteries in the region.  Published in 1991

"Rescue in Albania"
Authored by Harvey Sarner, details the facts that Albania is the only country in Europe that had a greater population of Jews within its borders after World War II, than before the Holocaust began.  The reason, is that Albanians live by a moral code of responsibility called "Bessa", which not only mandates hospitality to guests, but makes insuring the well being of a guest an Albanian's personal duty. 

"Righteous Gentiles". 
These are non Jews, from many countries, who put their own lives at risk to save the lives of their Jewish neighbors during WW II and Albanians are particularly noteworthy in this regard. 

"Empty Boxcars"
A documentary by Ed Gafney on the survival of the Bulgarian Jews and the mass murder of the Jews of Thrace and Macedonia.  available from Kehila Kedosha Janina synagogue in New York


1944 Map of Balkans, Carpathian Mountains Terrain Map

Croatia Map



       On October 29, 1944, Jewish refugees protected by Albanians pose for a photo following the
       liberation of the country. Photo: Refik Veseli

Albania is a country with a population less than that of Los Angeles, with the courage to practice, rather than just preach their professed beliefs.  Under Communist rule, Albania was proclaimed the world's firs atheist state, and the practice of religion, even privately, was outlawed.  During this period, religious sites, Jewish and non-Jewish, were ravaged.  With the collapse of Communism, most Albanian Jews immigrated to Israel, and today only a small remnant - about 15 people - of the Jewish population remains.  During the Holocaust, Albanian Jews were protected by their neighbors and Jews from other countries who succeeded in reaching Albania also found sanctuary.

Benjamin of Tudela heard of people living in the region, evidently Walachians, toward the end of the 12th century: "They are not strong in the faith of the Nazarenes and call each other by Jewish names, and some say that they are Jews."  Jewish settlements were founded at the beginning of the 16th century in the Albanian seaports by exiles from Spain, who were joined by refugees from other areas. There were sizeable trading communities at Berat,  Durazzo,  Elbassan, and Valona: here there were Castilian, Catalonian, Sicilian, Portuguese, and Apulian synagogues. Information about Albania, including maps can be found at


An excellent site to find information about most European countries is at 
and type in the name of the country you wish to research in the search field.  This site is a great source to find information for almost every European country. 

Another valuable site to help find a person, maps, etc.
and type in the name of any country you wish to research. This service is free.

Global Gazetteer is a great web site. It is a directory of  2,880,532 of the world's cities and towns, sorted by country and linked to a map for each town.  A tab separated list is available for each country.

Albanian Newspaper Link



Albanian Links

Albania Government Ministries

Albania Government Agencies

Albania Regional/Municipal Governing Bodies

Albania Major Political Parties

Albania Domestic NGOs

Albania Local Media

Albania International Organizations

Saranda  (Agioi, Hagios Saranta, Porto Edda, Santa Quaranta, Santi Quaranta, Sarandë, Saranta, Zogaj.

Rusevine Sinagoge

A 1500 year old synagogue was discovered here by archeologists from Jerusalem's Hebrew University, as well as others who have been working to uncover and excavate the remains of this important historical site




Bosnia and Herzegovina

jewish bosnia


Both of these areas rank next to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest Republic in the old Yugoslav Federation. The unemployment rate, according to a 1996 estimate, is 40-50%.  The country is located in southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia and is slightly smaller than the State of West Virginia





Books on this country can be found by clicking here > Books

Currently has a population of about 3.4 million. Fewer than 1,000 Bosnian Jews survived the Holocaust. It borders Croatia; Serbia and Montenegro.

Until declaring independence in the spring of 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina existed as a republic in the former YugoslaviaJewish refugees from    settled in Bosnia-Herzegovina in the 16th century, and Ladino (or Judaeo-Spanish) became the local Jewish language. The region was then under Ottoman domination. Jews maintained generally good relations with the majority Christian and Muslim communities. They prospered as merchants, artisans, physicians and pharmacists – at one point in the 19th century, all the doctors in Sarajevo were reported to be Jewish


Bosnia and Herzegovina Links


Before and after: The Sephardic Il Kal Grande synagogue in Sarajevo was destroyed, looted, and vandalized by Bosnian Muslims in 1941 when German forces occupied Sarajevo.

Both of these areas rank next to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest Republic in the old Yugoslav Federation. The unemployment rate, according to a 1996 estimate, is 40-50%.  The country is located in southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia and is slightly smaller than the State of West Virginia



Bosnia Government Ministries

Bosnia Government Agencies

Bosnia Regional/Municipal Governing Bodies

Bosnia Major Political Parties

Bosnia Domestic NGOs

Bosnia Local Media

Bosnia International Organizations


Bosnia and Herzegovina: Reference 

Including Country Guide, E-mail and Business Page Directories, Maps


Bosnia and Herzegovina Search Engines






Search for maps of Bosnia

Bosnia and the Balkan War 

Research the Balkan Wars at this site  The  world's largest online library of over 45,000 books and 360,000 journal, magazine, and newspaper articles



Diplomatic Representation from the US

Chief of Mission:
Ambassador Richard Kauzlarich
Embassy: 43 Ul. Dure Dakovica
Phone: [387] (71) 445-700, 667-391, 667-389, 667-743, 667-390, 659-969, 659-992 
Fax: [387] (71) 659-722 

Diplomatic Representation in the US:

Chief of Mission
Ambassador Sven Alkalaj
Chancery: Suite 760
1707 L Street NW
Washington, DC 20036 
Phone 1 202 833 3612, 3613, 3615  Fax: 1 202 833 2061

Administrative Divisions: 


There are two first-order administrative divisions currently approved by the US Government - the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosnia i Herzegovina) and Republika Srpska; it has been reported that the Muslim/Croat Federation is comprised of 10 cantons identified by either number or name -

Goradzde (5), Livno (10), Middle Bosnia (6), Neretva (7), Posavina (2), Sarajevo (9), Tuzla Podrinje (3), Una Sana (1), West Herzegovina (8), and Zenica Doboj (4)



Business 2 business company directory and business in Europe, yellow pages access, international and European business directory (professional services, addresses and business classifieds)

Jewish Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Jewish Museum - Main hall of the Jewish Community Museum. Photo (c) Ruth Ellen Gruber

Sarajevo 71000,



From this cemetery, the Serbs bombarded the city in the Bosnian war, which damaged many tombstones.  Though established by Sefardic Jews in 1630, in 1950, in 1950 the cemetery became the burial site for remains from two Ashkenazic cemeteries that were exhumed and reinterred.  Not far from the cemetery is a fortress Voivode Radomira Putrika, an old fortress which was the site of mass executions during WWII. Of the 9.091 names inscribed on the memorial, 7,091 were of Jews

Krajsini  (Krajsina)

  Pecina Badanj

Located twenty miles southeast of Mostar and 2 miles west of Stolac, there is a Jewish cemetery and a national monument




Located 45 miles southwest of Sarajevo, it had 308 Jews before 1939.  Today, it has 15.


A neo-Moorish style synagogue, built in 1904, and partly destroyed in WWII,  is located at 15 Brace Cisica.  It is now a national monument

Post Offices of Former Austrian Territories 

Includes Base post offices in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bohemia, Hungary, Levant, Lombardy, Mantua, Moravia, Silesia, Prague, Poland (Galicia), Venetia and Yugoslavia - all places are in alphabetical order, with provinces prefixed    



Established in 1900 and standing on the western slope of one of the hills outside the town, the Jewish cemetery is reached with difficulty. It is small, with 16 gravestones above ground and ten more, presumably older ones, sunk into the earth. There is a modest memorial to those who perished in the Second World War. The cemetery is surrounded by a damaged concrete wall. Inscriptions are in Hebrew, Ladino and Serbo-Croat."

Database of Shoah Victims Names

A photo of the old synagogue



The capital city.  Sarajevo is the major city with other cities and towns including Bihac,  Prijedor, Banja Luka, Bosanski Brod, Brcko, Tuzia, Zenica, Gorazde and Mostar in the general area. There are many small towns, in addition to these, but most did not have Jews living there at any time.  The Jewish community in Sarajevo dates back to as early as 1565 and is one of the oldest in the former Yugoslavia.  It has  a population of approximately 515,000. The first Jews came to Sarajevo in the middle of the 16th century, spreading from there to smaller towns of Bosnia.



Early History
20th Century History
Modern Jewish Community
Places of Interest


Devastation wreaked by the Holocaust and the recent civil war has left fewer than 5,700 Jews in  former Yugoslavia. The Jewish community, like the entire country, was once defined by its unique combination of eastern and western traditions. Populations of Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews peacefully co-existed in cities like Sarajevo, alongside their Christian and Muslim neighbors.


cemetery near Sarajevo, dating to the 17th century. Courtesy Federation of Jewish Communities in Yugoslavia, Belgrade

The Sarajevo National Museum
Since 1894, has owned the famous Sarajevo Haggada.  This is the 109 page manuscript that is lavishly illustrated with exquisite illuminated paintings and has long been a symbol of Jewish presence in the Balkans.  The Haggada was created in Spain in the 14th century and brought to Sarajevo after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.

Journey to the remnants of Sarajevo Jewry

Sarajevo Synagogue

The Old Stone Synagogue is being used for services again.  It was built in 1581 and after WW II was used as a Jewish museum until closed during the Bosnian War.  Jakob Finci is president of the Bosnian Jewish Community.

A Sephardi synagogue (also known as Sijavuš-pašina daira or Velika Avlija) is known to have been built in 1581 with the donation of Turkish Beglerbeg Sijamuš-paša to help members of the Jewish community in Sarajevo who were poor. By the end of the 16th century, the space encompassing Velika Avlija was turned into the first synagogue. The building burned down in both 1679 and 1778, and was rebuilt each time. It now serves as a Jewish museum. Next door is the New Synagogue (Novi Hram) serving as an art gallery owned by the Jewish community of Sarajevo. The magnificent Sephardic synagogue of 1932 (Il Kal Grande) acknowledged as the largest and most ornate synagogues in the Balkans, was destroyed by the Nazis in 1941

Sarajevo Synagogue (Bosnian: Sinagoga u Sarajevu)
Today, it is
Sarajevo's primary and largest synagogue and is located on the south bank of the river Miljacka. It was constructed in 1902 and remains the only functioning synagogue in Sarajevo today

Sarajevo Haggadah
The 14th century Haggadah is the city's most famous Jewish treasure.  Created in Spain, it is perhaps the most valuable illuminated Jewish manuscript.  It was rediscovered in 1894 when a destitute child brought it to school to sell.  It then became the property of the Sarajevo Museum where it was hidden during WWII.  

Search Engines for Bosnia

Country based search engines

Bosnia and Herzegovina Search Engines: [January 2009]





comprehensive guide to Internet resources on Russia and Central/Eastern Europe 


A photo is shown of the former synagogue



Translating Services -  Languages

Just in case you didn't think of it, contact a nearby university or college's foreign language department.  They may offer to write letters and translate letters into English.  A nominal fee is usually charged.


A group of Jews and non-Jews pose outside a club in Vlasenica, Bosnia.

A small town near Sarajevo in northern Bosnia where Jews still live.  The singer Flory Jagoda, a Ladino Jewess, and her family came from this community.  She now lives in Alexandria, Virginia, USA

Organized Jewish municipality to before World War II were in Banja Luka, Bihac, Bijeljina, Brcko, Derventa, Doboj, Tuzla, Mostar, Sanski Most, Rogatica, Sarajevo, Travnik, Visoko, Vlasenica, Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik and Žepču.

According to other data in the period between the two world wars in Bosnia and Herzegovina have operated 23 confessional Jewish opštine. However, it is known that the Jews were settled, in addition to the above places in other towns but they could not establish the Jewish municipality primarily due to the small number of its members , so in this case they belonged to the nearest organized Jewish municipality. Information indicates that the Jews, although they had a small number of members and materially poor standing, trying to establish their own municipality. Such is the case with the Jews of Bugojno, who belonged to the Jewish municipality of Travnik. From the rich fund of archives of the Provincial Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, we have selected a number of documents relating to the Jews residing in Bugojno and Vlasenica.

Flory Jagoda (born Florica Kabilio) is the daughter of Samuel and Rosa (Altarac) Papo. She was born December 21, 1923 in Sarajevo. Shortly after her birth, Florica's mother left her husband and returned to her parents, Sumbul and Berta Altarac, who were Sephardic musicians in the town of Vlasenica. In 1930 Florica's mother married Michael Kabilio and moved to Zagreb, leaving Florica in Vlasenica with her grandparents. Two years later, after Michael legally adopted Florica, she joined her mother and stepfather in Zagreb.  more at



List of Holocaust Victims

Towns Where Jews Lived

Bulgaria  (See my Bulgaria page)





Croatia is located in southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia  and Herzegovina  and Slovenia and is slightly smaller than the State of West Virginia.  It currently has a population of 4.7 million. Because of its location, this country controls most land routes from western Europe to the Aegean Sea and the Turkish Straits.  More details about the country can be found at 


Books on this country can be found by clicking here

Administrative Divisions 

There are 21 Counties (Zupanijas, Zupanija - Singular)

Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Beretta, Sitar, Carload, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj, Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonia, Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski, Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia, Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb 



Croatian national state archives building in Zagreb, Croatia
Croatia National Archives in Zagreb

National Archives



Coordinating Committee of Jewish Communities in Croatia

Zagreb 41000


Jewish cemetery vandalised in Croatia
Jewish cemetery in Split, Croatia

Jewish communities were already present in the Balkans when the Croats established a kingdom there in the 10th century CE. Jews lived in Zagreb in the 14th century but were expelled from Croatia in 1456. Their status and situation only improved in 1782 with the publication of the “Toleranzpatent” by Emperor Joseph II.

The Jews of Croatia and Dalmatia only received full emancipation in 1873. By the eve of WW II there were 40 Jewish communities in the country and 24,000 Jews. The Jewish Community of Zagreb grew to 11,000. In 1941, a pro-Nazi government was sworn in Croatia, and it implemented a policy of segregation and persecution against the Jews. This policy soon turned into active collaboration with Nazi Germany and with the deportation and extermination of thousands of Croatian Jews. Altogether, 78% of Croatian Jews perished in the Holocaust

The political upheaval that followed resulted in the migration of 2 million Jews to the West, propelled by a wave of pogroms that swept across the Russian empire.

While the majority of these refugees went to America, a small proportion settled in the UK. In just 30 years, Britain’s Jewish population exploded, soaring from 46,000 to 250,000. Many settled near the Spitalfields Market in London’s East End, where a large Jewish community already existed.

Croatian Links

Croatia Government Ministries

Croatia Government Agencies

Croatia Regional/Municipal Governing Bodies

Croatia Major Political Parties

Croatia Domestic NGOs

Croatia Local Media

Croatia International Organizations


A business 2 business company directory and business in Europe, yellow pages access, international and European business directory (professional services, addresses and business classifieds


   Jewish cemetery, in Ilok, Croatia

Database of Shoah Victims' Names


Croatia Map



   View of the Jasenovac concentration camp in Croatia. Jasenovac, Yugoslavia, 1941-1942.
   US Holocaust Memorial Museum

The largest WW II extermination camp in Croatia.  It was built in August 1941 and finally dismantled in April 1945.  It was the scene of one of the most barbaric death camps of the Holocaust and was the only death camp in Europe to have been run by local people without the help of the Nazis


Newspaper Link

Order for Serbs and Jews to move out of their homes in Zagreb, Croatia and a warning of forcible expulsion and punishment of those that failed to comply.





Search Engines for Croatia

Scroll down to 'Search Engines'


A comprehensive guide to Internet resources on Russia and Central/Eastern Europe 


Croatian Cities  and Towns


Djurdjevac  (Gjurgjevac, Sankt-Georgen, Szentgyörgy, Sanct-Georgen, Gyurgyevecz, Djurdjevec )


The Jewish cemetery's  former size remains unknown. Only two tombstones exist, lying damaged in a Gypsy  village built on the site of the cemetery. On one of them, the carved blessing of Cohanim is still visible

Photo of the last Jewish Tombstone


The Jewish Communities of Dubrovnik database

"The Ancient Jewish Community of Dubrovnik"  
An article authored by Robert W. Case describing his travel experiences to this ancient city on the Adriatic Sea.


Fiume, (Rijeka, [Croa], Fiume [Ital], Sankt Veit am Flaum [Ger], Rěka [Slov], Rieka )



Hungarian free city and Adriatic seaport, with a Jewish population in 1901 of about 2,000. That there were Jews at Fiume in the eighteenth century is indicated by the existence there of a Jewish tombstone dated 1746 and a scroll of the Law dated 1789. They were mostly Sephardim who had emigrated from Dalmatia and the Levant, especially from Ragusa and Spalato. Down to 1835 their minhag was that used at Spalato, and their prayer-book was that of David Pardo, rabbi at Spalato. In 1835 Italian, Greek, German, and Bohemian Jews settled in the city and introduced the minhag "Italiani." The records of the community were regularly kept as early as 1824, but down to 1840 only Judćo-Spanish and Italian names are found therein. Beginning with 1841 German names appear, and later Hungarian names are met with.

The community grew considerably after 1879, when the harbor improvements were begun and trade commenced to increase rapidly. The community numbers now about 2,000 souls. Its institutions include a Hebra Kaddisha (1885), a society of Jewish women, and a society for clothing poor school-children. The community owns an old and a new cemetery, and the Hebra Kaddisha also owns a cemetery. The corner-stone of a new temple was laid in 1902. There are more than 300 Jewish pupils in the public schools of the city, instruction being carried on in Hungarian, Italian, German, and Croatian. Sermons are delivered in Hungarian, German, and Italian. Of its rabbis are known: Mayer Randegger; Solomon Raphael Mondolfo (d. 1872); and Adolf Gerlóczi (Goldstein), who has held the position since 1882.

Fiume was an emigration port on the Adriatic Sea for Hungarian and Croatian Jews, is now known as Rijeka and is in the Republic of Croatia.  It was in Croatia, until 1918 in Austro-Hungary; after World War I until 1945 in Italy. There were some Jews in Fiume during the 16th century under Austrian rule. Fiume was declared a free port in 1717 and attracted more Jews. When in 1776 it became attached to Hungary as its port, Jews from Hungary began to settle there, but until the mid-19th century the majority of Jews were Sephardim from Split and Dubrovnik, who followed the minhag Ispalatto (Spalato, "Split"). After 1848 with the influx of Hungarian, German, Bohemian, and Italian Jews, Italian and German rites were also used. at Trieste.   At one time, before WW 1, Fiume was located in Modrus-Fiume County in Austro-Hungary





Located about 60 miles southeast of Croatia's capital of Zagreb.  This is one of six camps that held Jews, huge numbers of Serbs and Gypsies who were slaughtered by the Ustashe.



Jasenovac concentration camp (Serbo-Croatian: Logor Jasenovac and Cyrillic: Логор Јасеновац; Yiddish: יאסענאוואץ, sometimes spelled "Yasenovatz") was an extermination camp established in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II. The camp was established by the governing Ustaše regime and not operated by Nazi Germany,[3] and was one of the largest concentration camps in Europe.[4]



Victims List @ Jasenovac Concentration Camp



The lower Osijek synagogue, built in 1903, was converted in 1970 into a Pentecostal church. Although crosses decorate the main facade, there are also Tablets of the Law over the entrance. The building, combining neo-Romanesque with neo-Moorish elements, has two side towers with separate entrances and staircases which once led to the women's galleries. Its Torah ark crowned by Tablets of the Law, remains in place, as well as the Stars of David in the round windows of the women's gallery. Osijek currently has a small Jewish population



 Rijeka (It. Fiume)

Fiume Sinagoga Israelitico Tempio Israelitico jewish church Rijeka

Adriatic port in Croatia, until 1918 in Austro-Hungary; after World War I until 1945 in Italy. There were some Jews in Fiume during the 16th century under Austrian rule. Fiume was declared a free port in 1717 and attracted more Jews. When in 1776 it became attached to Hungary as its port, Jews from Hungary began to settle there, but until the mid-19th century the majority of Jews were Sephardim from Split and Dubrovnik, who followed the minhag Ispalatto (Spalato, "Split"). After 1848 with the influx of Hungarian, German, Bohemian, and Italian Jews, Italian and German rites were also used. A Chevra Kaddisha was founded in 1885; there were three cemeteries and a modern style synagogue was built in 1902. In 1900 there were 2,000 Jews in Rijeka. The congregation remained the only independent Orthodox one in Italy after the 1930 reforms. Children were sent to public schools – German, Hungarian, Italian, or Croatian ones – due to the heterogeneous composition of the population. The sermons were also delivered in German or Italian. In 1920 there were 1,300 Jews in Rijeka and in nearby Abbazia (Opatija), dropping to just 136 on the eve of the war


The Jews tended to live in Salona, also a port and now a suburb of Split. Invaders in the 7th century destroyed the town and the survivors, including the Jews, found refuge inside the walls of the Diocletian's palace. The Jews from Spain and Portugal strengthened the community as they sought freedom over the years. It was a Daniel Rodriguez that financed and built the Split harbor and customhouse in the 1570s. Because the city was ruled by many different governments over its history, the local Jewish community experienced different amounts of religious freedom. Signs of their co-existence are visible in the palace in many different areas


Jewish cemetery vandalised in Croatia

The cemetery, located above the city on Marjan Hill, was founded in 1573 and in use until 1945. It is listed as a cultural heritage monument


Split’s Synagogue's Memorial Plaque

Split’s Synagogue was established during the early 16th Century into the western wall of Diocletian’s palace, followed by Jews escaping the purges in Spain and Portugal.

This small city of Split, Croatia, with a population of less than a quarter of a million, contains, two communities, Christian and Jewish, who have lived together in a complicated relationship for much longer than 500 years

Walking Tour of Jewish History of Split



A town in the district of Zagorje, on the Drava River, Croatia; important communications center on the Vienna-Trieste line. Jews arrived there in the mid-1750s, coming from Hungary, Burgenland, and Moravia. They traded in cattle, a fact documented in the 1761 municipal decree debarring them from this source of income. Their settlement was slow and gradual, since each individual had to procure for himself an "inkolat," i.e., a residence permit, which was not easily accorded. Among the first Jews on record, two are of note: Isaac the Jew and Moses Jacobsohn. In 1793 a prayer-house was built near the city's fortification. Jewish physicians and merchants suffered from robbery and plunder. Mirko Breyer, the first librarian and publisher in Croatia, originated from Varaždin.

Located on the main road to Koprivnica at the intersection of Zaobilaznica Street. The cemetery was established in 1806. The cemetery, containing a Ceremonial Hall and about 600 monuments, is on property about ľ hectares in size. The property was taken over in 1958 and is now owned and maintained by the
Parkovi d.d. Company,
Hallerova aleja 8, 42000
Phone; 042 332-777,

The Ceremonial Hall was built in 1900 and is designated a Historical Landmark (Monument of Culture). Unfortunately, a concrete factory is located very close by, making for unsuitable surroundings. Many of the older monuments have both German and Hebrew inscriptions. Newer monument inscriptions may be in Croatian and some in Hungarian. There have been no burials for maybe the last 50 years. An original illuminated registry book of the Varazdin Chevra Kadisha (burial society) from 1812, is kept in the archives of the Jewish Community in Zagreb. The book includes procedures of the Society and list of members. Because many monuments are unreadable, a book of burials at the cemetery is located in the Municipal Museum of Varazdin

The FHC (Family History Center) has no films on Jewish records for this town, just Roman Catholic records



Zagreb is a city at the cross roads of history and recently celebrated it's 900th birthday.

A video, with many interesting photos is available

Sinagoga1906 11.jpg
Zagreb Synagogue on a 1906 postcard

The Zagreb Synagogue (Croatian: Zagrebačka sinagoga) was the main place of worship for the Jewish community of Zagreb in modern-day Croatia, from its construction in 1867 in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austrian Empire, until its demolition by the fascist authorities in 1941 in the Axis-aligned Independent State of Croatia.

The capital of Croatia currently has a small Jewish population.




Greece  (See my Italy-Greece    page)




New Jewish Cemetery of Pristina (Prishtina)

Photo of the old Jewish Tombstone

Though a relatively recent independent country, Kosovo can trace its Jewish history back to the 15th century when Jews first started coming to the Balkans.

Early History
The World Wars & the Holocaust
Post-War Period
Modern Community




Jewish Community


Kosovo Government Ministries

Kosovo Government Agencies

Kosovo Regional/Municipal Governing Bodies

Kosovo Major Political Parties

Kosovo Domestic NGOs

Kosovo Local Media

Kosovo International Organizations


Macedonia  (See also Russian Empire)

A group of Macedonian Jewish youth, members of a band, pose with their instruments on a makeshift stage in Bitola. September 18, 1930.

A group of Macedonian Jewish youth, members of a band, pose with their instruments on a makeshift stage in Bitola. September 18, 1930. — US Holocaust Memorial Museum


A virtual guide to the Republic of Macedonia. Get an overview of Macedonia's art, culture, people, environment, geography, history, economy and its government. Beside a country profile with facts and figures, this page offers maps, statistics, weather information, and links to sources that provide you with information about this Balkan nation, e.g.: official web sites of Macedonia, addresses of Macedonian and foreign embassies, domestic airlines, local news, city- and country guides with extensive travel and tourism information on accommodation, tourist attractions, events and more

  Books on this country can be found by clicking here

Map of Macedonia

Jews have lived in the Balkans since antiquity, up until their deportation to Treblinka.  Today, there are a small group of Jews living in the capital city of Skopje.

Macedonia is the only country created from the breakup of Communist-era Yugoslavia that, has not experienced war during the past decade.  Only about 200 Jews live in the country, but the tight-knit group has been fighting to revive Jewish traditions, Jewish identity and Jewish life - and their presence has been recognized by the national leadership as an important symbol in a state that has tried to maintain a peaceful ethnic mix.

What is believe to be the first new synagogue built in the Balkans since the end of WW II, was dedicated in 2000.  In 1999, the Jewish community established a Jewish Humanitarian Aid Society called Dobra Volja to help refugees from Kosovo of whatever nationality - Albanian, Serb or Gyps - and also help local Macedonians in need.  Capital city of the Republic of Macedonia is Skopje.

Until 1492, most of Macedonia's Jews were Greek-speaking Romaniotes. Today, the only Jewish community is in Skopje.  Most of the Jewish community of about 60 families, with some 50 children, are mostly Sephardic.

The Republic of Macedonia, formerly a part of Yugoslavia from which it declared independence in 1991, is situated in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula (Southeastern Europe). The country is characterized by large and high mountain massifs giving way to extensive, flat valleys and plains.

International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (FYROM) independence from Yugoslavia was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbol. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995, and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, despite continued disagreement over FYROM's use of "Macedonia." FYROM's large Albanian minority and the de facto independence of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.

The Jewish community leader is Viktor Mizrahi.  Izhak Asiel is the chief rabbi of both Macedonia and Yugoslavia. Zdravko Sami is vice president of the Jewish Community in Macedonia.


Read Esther Hecht's' article in the October/November 2013 issue of Hadassah Magazine for additional details.

Archives - The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - State Archives

Original wagon used for transport of the Macedonian Jews - on display at the Holocaust Museum in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.



State Archives of the Republic of Macedonia



Bitola (aka Monastir - see below)

An important city on the trade route known as Via Egnatia, that connected the Albanian port Durazzo (Durres) with Thessaloniki and Constantinople. In the 12th century, they were artisans and traders.  Jews, who were expelled from Hungary came to Bitola in the 14th century, and refugees from Asia Minor came in the 15th century.  In the 16th century, Jews that had been previously expelled from Spain and Portugal came to several Macedonian cities and in the 17th century, Conversos from Holland and elsewhere settled in Skopje. In the late 19th century, it was the second largest city in the southern Balkans. There were 7,000 Jews living in the city in 1910.

Museum Bitola
389 47 233 187

The museum has a "Permanent Exhibition" entitled "Jewish Ethnic Identity Bitola."  Within the displays, are items dating from 5500 B.C.E and also exhibited is a partial list of the city's deported Jews; an urn with ashes from Treblinka and photos of Jewish partisans including Estreja Ovadija and Josef Mordo Nachmijas.

Long View of the Cemetery Gate Entrance

Bitola Jewish Cemetery



"Evreite vo Makedonija vo Vtorata Svetska Vojna, 1941 - 1945; Zbornik na" 
("The Jews in Macedonia During the Second World War (1941 - 1945") - Collection of Documents) - 


Business 2 business company directory and business in Europe, yellow pages access, international and European business directory (professional services, addresses and business classifieds

FYR Macedonia 

A woman stands in front of a memorial for 7,144 Macedonian Jews, in the tobacco warehouses in Skopje, Macedonia, on Monday, March 11, 2013. Macedonia commemorates 70-years of the holocaust of its Jewish community, almost completely wiped out during the Nazis� occupation of this tiny Balkan country during World War II. (AP Photo/Boris Grdanoski)

Jewish Community of Macedonia
Skopje 91000, FYR



At the beginning of WW II, there some 3,350 Jews remaining in Bitola, about 3,800 in Skopje and 550 in Shtip. Sometime in February 1943, the Jews of Macedonia and Thrace (about 7,144) were sent to Treblinka.


Macedonian Links


Macedonia Government Ministries

Macedonia Government Agencies

Macedonia Regional/Municipal Governing Bodies

Macedonia Major Political Parties

Macedonia Domestic NGOs

Macedonia Local Media

Macedonia International Organizations

Diplomatic Missions
Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia
Ottawa, Canada.
Diplomatic and Consular Representations of Macedonia
Address list of Macedonia's Diplomatic Missions Abroad.
Diplomatic mission and Consular Offices to Macedonia
Address list of Diplomatic Missions accredited to Macedonia


Map of Republic of Macedonia
Political Map of Republic of Macedonia.
Administrative Map of Republic of Macedonia

Map showing Republic of Macedonia and the surrounding countries with international borders, provincial boundaries, the national capital Skopje, municipalities, major cities, main roads, railroads and major airports.

Maps of Macedonia
Perry-Castańeda Library Map Collection of Macedonian maps
Google Earth Macedonia
Searchable map and satellite view of Macedonia.
Google Earth Skopje
Searchable map and satellite view of Skopje, Macedonia's capital.

Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.

MIA: Macedonian Information Almanac


Monastir (see also Bitola above)

Jews on selection ramp at Auschwitz, May 1944

Monastir was known as Monastir by the Ottomans. The history of the Jews in Monastir reaches back two thousand years. Monastir Province was an Ottoman vilayet, created in 1864, encompassing territories in present-day Albania, Macedonia (one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991) and Greece.


Holocaust Data
"The Sephardic Jews of Monastir, 1839-1943". A web companion to a new history. The list published in Last Century is the first to present in English all the names, addresses, ages, and occupations of the 3,276 Monastir Jews killed in the Holocaust.

There are Regional Special Interest Groups that have Macedonia information and links.  The site includes links to Bohemia-Moravia SIG, Denmark SIG, German-Jewish SIG, Hungary SIG and Stammbaum - German SIG at

Family Names of the Jews of Monastir


Ohrid itself, is a deeply spiritual, historically multi-ethnic city of about 40,000 along the eastern shore of the eponymous lake. The 18-mile-long lake forms a natural boundary between Macedonia and Albania, and was a pearl of Yugoslav tourism during Communist times. Today, locals are as likely to speak Albanian as Macedonian, which itself sounds similar to Bulgarian, and Serbian, Turkish and Gypsy tongues are heard as well. Ladino was the language of Ohrid’s Sephardic Jews before World War II, but only a handful of speakers remain, and there are no regular worship services


Sephardic Jews

Search Engines for Macedonia

Scroll down to 'Search Engines'


The first Jews settled in Shtip in 1512, when 38 Jewish families were recorded. In 1943, all 560 Jews from Shtip’s Jewish quarter were deported by the fascists to the Treblinka death camp.  It is located 60 miles southeast of Skopje and has a Memorial Monument

The Institute and Museum of Shtip in eastern Macedonia announced it begun the reconstruction and conservation of the Jewish cemetery in the city.






Jews on stools in the “Monopol” tobacco factory storerooms, Skopje, March 1943

Jews on stools in the “Monopol” tobacco factory storerooms, Skopje, March 1943 
Yad Vashem Photo Archive 213/67


Jewish Community
Jana Nichota Secretary-General
Phone: 011-389-75-210-235
Email: contact@ezrm.org.mk


A synagogue dates from 1389 when the Ottomans started developing the city as a commercial center.  By the 16th century, a Jewish cemetery existed and the inhabitants of the Jewish quarter were tanners, smiths and exporters of wool.

Beit Yaakov Synagogue
The original building was destroyed in the 1963 earthquake, and was rebuilt in the Jewish community center's three-story building


A comprehensive guide to Internet resources on Russia and Central/Eastern Europe 


Ezdra Isak Florentin – A Jew from Solun who fought in the VMRO

Solun was the home of a historical centre of Sephardic life; the city was called the "Mother of Israel" by Samuel Usque. Macedonian Jews played an important role in the early development of Christianity, and became a source of education and commerce for the Byzantine Empire and throughout the period of Ottoman Macedonia, until suffering devastation in the Holocaust after Greece was occupied by the Axis powers in WWII.

The majority of the Macedonian Jews are Sephardim whose ancestors had left Portugal, Spain and Italy. Their traditional language was Ladino, and, until the Holocaust, "was a unique blend of Ottoman, Balkan and Hispanic influences". After their expulsion from Spain, between fifteen and twenty thousand more Jews settled in Solun

The Jewish cemetery was destroyed by the Greeks once the Jews had left. They built the University of Thessaloniki on top of it

The "Italia Yassan Synagogue" is one of two surviving synagogues, the other is  "Synagogue of the Monasteriotes" named by the Greeks because it was built by Jews from Manastir (Bitola). 


The synagogue interior in Skopje.  Photo by Esther Hecht.

This town is 50 miles southeast of Skopje.  There are indications of Jews being in this town from at least the third century C.E.  An inscription and two synagogues were found in the ruins. Stobi in the 3rd century had a Jewish community, when Policharmosius built Sinagoga which was destroyed in the time of Theodosius 1st visiting in 388. In the second half of the 5th century the disasters of Stobi, have begun. In 479 AD, the town was robbed by Theodor the Ostrogothic king. A powerful earthquake struck down in 518 AD. The Avaro-Slavic invasions in the 6th century have totally ruined Stobi. In 1014 Stobi was ruined again, by the Byzantine army of Vasilius 2nd.






Montenegro ethnic03.png


Montenegro Links

Montenegro Government Ministries

Montenegro Government Agencies

Montenegro Regional/Municipal Governing Bodies

Montenegro Major Political Parties

Montenegro Domestic NGOs

Montenegro Local Media

Montenegro International Organizations


Romania  (See my Romania page)




Principality/Kingdom of Serbia (1878–1918)

 Books  on this country can be found by clicking here 

Serbia today, has about 3,000 Jews who are highly integrated into mainstream society. To learn more about Serbia, I found this linkThe site offers to help you in your research and also offers additional links including surnames, etc.

Serbia-Today -  


General Serbian

Apatin  (Apatin [Serb, Hun, Ger], Apathin,  Abthausen and Serbian Cyrillic: Апатин)

Former Synagogue in Apatin

There were only about 60 Jews living here before WW II and the Jewish community was murdered in the Holocaust.  It is a small Serbian town near the Hungarian border has a synagogue with a strange mural on the ceiling.  The synagogue was built in 1885 for a Neolog congregation, the Hungarian version of Reform Judaism.  The mural shows the ten Commandments in the sky, but the Hebrew lettering on the tablets is written backward in mirror image.  No one knows why this exists nor is there anything comparable in that part of Serbia or in Hungary.  The synagogue was sold to a Baptist church.

The town and municipality in the Vojvodina administrative region is located in the West Bačka District, at 45°40' N, 18°59' E, 9 miles SW of Sombor (Zombor), on the Danube (border with Croatia)The town of Apatin is the administrative, economic, cultural, educational and tourist center of the municipality of Apatin (333 km˛) with a population of 19,289 in the town and 32,793 in the municipality. The about 60 Jews from Apatin died in the Holocaust. 

Their simple 1885 synagogue building was used as a Baptist church in the 1950s and is now vacant.  A rabbi's house still exists near the synagogue. The cemetery dating from 1780 with an ohel exists. [January 2009]




Jews forced to clear the ruins in Belgrade

The country's capital is located on the edge of the Carpathian Basin near where the Sava River meets the mighty Danube.  Its position on the route from Turkey to Central Europe has long made it a center of commerce, communication, and, at times, upheaval.


The building of the former synagogue is still standing and can be viewed here



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Links for Serbia

Serbia Government Ministries

Serbia Government Agencies

Serbia Regional/Municipal Bodies

Serbia Major Political Paties

Serbia Domestic NGOs

Serbia Local Media

Serbia International Organizations


Map and General Reference Information

Maps of Europe

Newspapers in Serbia



A historic Jewish cemetery that long has been threatened by the encroachment of a growing Roma, or Gypsy, settlement that occupies one-third of the site is now being threatened by the encroachment of commercial enterprises into the domain of the old Hebrew gravestones.

A Gypsy village that has an old Jewish cemetery


Novi Sad 

Novi Sad Jewish Cemetery

The capital of Vojvodina is situated at a strategic bend in the Danube.


The Bruck and Nemenyi family graves in Subotica's Jewish cemetery

There is still a Jewish community (about 220 Jews - the third largest in Serbia)  located here. Mira Poljakovic is the communities representative and there is a synagogue where services are held.  The city is north of Belgrade on the Hungarian border 

According to the website jewish-heritage-europe.eu, which has extensive information on-line about Serbian Jewish heritage sites, the Subotica Jewish cemetery is:

"large and well-maintained. It was founded soon after the establishment of the Subotica Jewish community was established in 1780. It contains both an Ohel and a Holocaust memorial. Major maintenance work began in 1999. The cemetery also includes gravestones (including many black marble obelisks) moved there in 2000 from the disused cemetery at Mali Iđoš." Subotica is also the site of one of the most
impressive synagogues in Europe, which has been undergoing restoration for many years



Slovenia lies 100 miles east of Venice, Italy and about 150 miles south of Vienna.  It is about the size of the State of New Jersey.  It currently has a population of 2 million.  The language is Slovenian also known as Slovene.  During the late 1800s, an estimated 330,000 immigrants emigrated to Cleveland, Ohio.  

Slovenia has been fought over in many wars.  It the last century, it was a province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and a part of Yugoslavia.  During the 20 years between the world wars, Italy annexed a large  chunk of the country.  It is easy to get confused about Slovenia, but it should not be mistaken for Slovakia, a nation neighboring the Czech Republic or Slavonia, a region of Croatia.

The capital of Slovenia is Ljubljana (pronounced loob-lyana) has a population of about 300,000.  It has been noted as being similar to Prague but without the tourists.


Archives of the Republic - in Ljubljana  


Atlas Map of Slovenia

Map of Slovenia

The Electronic Embassy

Has many Slovenia links sponsored by a service of TeleDiplomacy, Inc.  


Business 2 business company directory and business in Europe, yellow pages access, international and European business directory (professional services, addresses and business classifieds


Best Hotel in Ljubljana is the Grand Hotel Union located on Miklosceva Street.

Jewish Community of Slovenia 

Organization, History, Life in Slovenia, Judaism in Slovenia, News and more

Jewish Community of Slovenia
1000 Ljubljana

Loka pri Zusmu 

A tiny village once in Yugoslavia, is now in the Republic of Slovenia since 1991.  It is east of the Slovene capital of Ljubljana, not far from the city of Celje.  The nearest large town is Sentur also close to Celje, which lies between Sentur and the border with Croatia.


Map - City of Ljubljana which is also the capital

Search Engines for Macedonia

Scroll down to 'Search Engines'


A comprehensive guide to Internet resources on Russia and Central/Eastern Europe 

Slovenia. A Guide to Virtual Slovenia


Telephone Directory 

Slovenian phonebook in English/German/Slovenian


Translating Services    Language

Just in case you


didn't think of it, contact a nearby university or college's foreign language department.  They may offer to write letters and translate letters into English.  A nominal fee is usually charged.

 (See my    Turkey   page)




The Breakup of Yugoslavia, 1990–1992


14,000 of the 20,000 German, Austrian and Czech Jews deported to Latvia were murdered there in WW II.  Yad Vashem has added a list of over 48,000 Jews to their database.  Assistance is available via e-mail at

Balkan Research 
At this site you will find many links to Yugoslavia, Croatia, Bosnia and the Czech Republic among other countries and subjects



Most books, CDs, etc. can be ordered through my link to Amazon.com by clicking here


"Jews In Yugoslavia: Muzejski prostor, Zagreb, Jezuitski trg 4.", Edited by Ante Soric, et al and translated from Serbo-Croatian into English by Mira Vlatkovic and Sonia Wild-Bicanic.  Published by MGC of Zagreb, Croatia in 1989.


Yugoslavia Genealogy

An excellent site to find information about Yugoslavia is at 

and type in Yugoslavia in the search field.  This site is a great source to find information for almost every European country.  Yugoslavia currently has a population of 11.2 million.

The close-knit Jewish community in the former Yugoslav Federation was divided when Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia broke away and became independent during a series of bloody wars.

The president of the Federation of Jewish Communities in Yugoslavia is Aca Singer.

Archives - Yugoslavia Archives 

In Belgrade  


Before WW II,  there were 10,400 Jews and roughly 16,000 in the whole of Serbia.  Almost 90 percent were killed in the Holocaust.  

The capital city has at least one active synagogue.

The Belgrade Fair exhibition ground was once described as "the forgotten concentration camp" - the Sajmiste camp that the site was turned into during WW II by the occupying Nazis.

Bitola (Monastir), Macedonia 

Bitola Jewish Cemetery. Credit: Courtesy of Arie Darzi to memorialize the Jewish community

Monastir was how the Turks (and Greeks) called a Balkan/Macedonian town now the second largest in the [formerly Yugoslav] Republic of Macedonia (pop. 122,173 in 1991ce; altitude 600 meters), near the border with Greece, at the foot of Mt Pelister, in the Baba mountains. Manastir is the spelling reflecting the most frequent pronunciation, and some Arabic sources use this transliteration

   Video of the Jewish Cemetery in Bitola

"Evreite vo Makedonija vo Vtorata Svetska Vojna, 1941 - 1945; Zbornik na" 

(The Jews in Macedonia During the Second World War (1941 - 1945) - Collection of Documents) - 



The book, "Jews In Yugoslavia" was the ultimate source for both Ruth Ellen Gruber and Noel Malcolm regarding the Chelarevo gravesite.  The book contains two photographs of Jewish stones from Chelarevo (Pages 21, 22) as well as the following text:  "The early-medieval graveyard and settlement at Chelarevo, near Novi Sad, offers the most numerous and most unusual finds with Jewish symbols.  Along with several hundreds of graves of typically Avaric characteristics (judging by the pottery, jewelry and horsemen's gear) excavations begun in 1972 produced several hundreds of graves of the same shape but lacking any additional burial objects."

Although a considerable number of graves of this other type had been destroyed by the operation of a near-by brick works, they offered a unique archeological find, which at the same time was a great enigma: each grave was marked by a fragment of a Roman brick (never a whole brick, although these were plentiful in the near-by older Roman sites) into which a menorah was cut, and most frequently two other Jewish symbols on its left and right sides: the shofar and an esrog, a lulav on some bricks and even a small Jewish six-pointed star.  Some 450 brick fragments have so far been found.  

The position and the side of the incised motifs were adapted to the size and shape of each of the fragments, which means that the motifs were not there on the original whole bricks.  Some of the fragments had a Hebrew inscription added - a name or a few words which, with the exception of Jerusalem and Israel are difficult to decipher because of the damage.  Some of the Hebrew characters are carved with great precision.  According to the finds from typically Avaric tombs, the
 graveyard is dated to the end of the 8th century until the first decades of the 9th century.

A new major find at the Chelarevo site, according to a communication by archeologist Radovan Bunardzhic, who is continuing the excavations, is the discovery of a large settlement (sic.) in the immediate vicinity of the graveyard. Only a part of the settlement, 1.5 km long and 0.5 km wide, has so far been uncovered, but excavation is not yet complete.  Apart from the remains of a goldsmith's workshop and a few fragments of brick with carved-in menorah, no elements have been found to indicate the origin of Chelarevo's inhabitants.

Anthropological analyses have been made on the remains of skeletons from the graveyards with common Avaric objects, and they suggest a Mongol origin of that part of the population of  Chelarevo, but with certain differences in comparison with the Avaric characteristics known so far.  It is assumed that it was a newly arrived Mongol tribe from Asia.

Results of anthropological analysis for which skeleton material has been forwarded recently are expected to shed more light on the extraction of the population whose tombs did not contain any additional funeral objects apart from the brick fragments with carved Jewish symbols.

Several hypotheses have been proposed on the possible origin of a Jewish or Judaised population who marked the graves of their dead in this unusual way and had literate people among them.  The influence of the Crimea Khazars has been mentioned in this context; their ruler, nobility and part of the population were Judaised in the 8th century and  many Jews who had emigrated from Asia Minor and Byzantium, lived among them.  Other migrations of inhabitants from Asia Minor can be assumed, as the Jewish Diaspora had been widespread there for centuries.  Neither can another supposition be neglected of descendants of  much earlier settlers from the Middle East during the Roman period, i.e. the  so-called Oriental Jews who the troubled conditions in the Balkans drove north at the times of the Vo'lkerwanderung.

One thing has been established with certainty: although the one-time population of Chelarevo had different creeds, Pagan and Jewish, they did share the same settlement and the same graveyard. apart from certain sections of the graveyard where one or the other type of grave prevails, both types intermingle in a considerable part of the graveyard." The previous information was obtained from the Khazaria Info Center News


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Jewish Communities

Federation of Jewish Communities in Yugoslavia
Belgrade 10001, Yugoslavia

Jews in Yugoslavia

1. Jews in Yugoslavia 01: the Balkan states before 1918 
(Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  

 Jews in Yugoslavia 02: 1918-1941 
(Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  

3. Jews in Yugoslavia 03: Holocaust 1941-1944 
(Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  

4. Jews in Yugoslavia 04: 1945-1970 
(Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  

Juden in Jugo-Städten / Jews in Yugoslav towns

Jews in Belgrade 
(Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  
Good circumstances under local and Turkish law - destruction and expulsion under Austrians and Serbs since 1688 - Turkish despots - equality since 1878 - Holocaust - emigration for racist Herzl Israel

Jews in Osijek 
(Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  
Jews coming as prisoners - community life and emancipation - Holocaust with robbery, deportations and mass murder

Jews in Zagreb 
(Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)  
Jews from central Europe, Malta, and Albania - commerce - 200 years "military zone" under Austrian rule without Jews since 1526 - cultural life since 1806 - Croat nationalism - communal life until 1941



There is a Jewish memorial plaque in town and at least one elderly Holocaust survivor still living here.


Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection - a source for maps of Yugoslavia including city maps, and links to other country maps.  A great web site

1944 Map of Balkans, Carpathian Mountains Terrain Map

Maps of Europe

Passports Issued by the Empire 

Local authorities throughout the Empire issued passports.  The register that LDS has only includes a listing of passports that were issued by the Vienna passport office (i.e. the register doesn't include passports, which were issued by other offices in Austria, such as Galicia, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, etc.). 

Here is what LDS has from the Vienna Passport Office:

Note, that it's just the register of passports which were issued by that office (i.e., it's not the register of the several hundred passport offices which were located throughout the Austrian portion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire).

Post Offices of Former Austrian Territories

Includes Base post offices in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bohemia, Hungary, Levant, Lombardy,  Mantua, Moravia,  Silesia, Prague, Poland (Galicia), Venetiaand Yugoslavia - all places are in alphabetical order, with provinces prefixed    

Selenca (now located in Serbia)

Search Engines for Yugoslavia

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A comprehensive guide to Internet resources on Russia and Central/Eastern Europe 


There is a synagogue in this village

Translating Services -  Language

Just in case you didn't think of it, contact a nearby university or college's foreign language department.  They may offer to write letters and translate letters into English.  A nominal fee is usually charged.

Ujvidek (renamed Novid Sad, Yugoslavia)


The earliest records of Jews in Zrenjanin date back to the 18th century. They were a part of the Arad, later the Timisoara, rabbinate. The first families that moved to the territory of present-day Zrenjanin are the Frajnd, Julijus, and Gutman families. In the 10th century, they grew stronger both in numbers and financially. They founded a religious community – rabbinate, a school, and built a synagogue in 1852, and established a separate cemetery on the Ečanski Road.

According to the 1900 population census, there were 1,335 persons of “Israelite” religion in Bečkerek, and this number was stable until WWII. The Jewish Women’s Humanitarian Society was established in 1858, with Jewish and non-Jewish members. Hard-working, well-organized, having a good sense of social life within their own communities and with the communities living around them, the Jews from Zrenjanin, then called Veliki Bečkerek, soon flourished in material and cultural terms. An important figure among them at that time was Dr Mihail Švarc, an attorney at law, President of the Jewish Religious Community. He often, at his own cost, visited Budapest in order to win the famous architect of Hungary, Leopold Baumhorn, to build a synagogue in Veliki Bečkerek


There is a Jewish memorial plaque in town and the remains of a Jewish cemetery. Lidija Petrovic is the president of the Jewish community

Video of the Cemetery


more to come ...

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